battle of breitenfeld

Archduke Leopold Wilhelm assembled a court-martial in Prague which sentenced the Madlon regiment to exemplary punishment. Gustav Adolf moved deeper into Germany. Updates? The first major Protestant victory of the Thirty Years’ War, the Battle of Breitenfeld saw King Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus) of Sweden’s army defeat Catholic League forces under Johan Isaclaes, Graf von Tilly. Meanwhile, imperial forces attacked the Saxon army, which quickly fled the field. Conflicts in 1631: Battle of Breitenfeld: Llc, Books: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Jacob F. Field is an early modern historian based at the University of Cambridge. Battle of Breitenfeld, (Sept. 17, 1631), the first major Protestant victory of the Thirty Years’ War, in which the army of the Roman Catholic Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic League, under Johan Isaclaes, Graf von Tilly, was destroyed by the Swedish-Saxon army under King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden. …emperor’s forces in battle: at Breitenfeld, just outside Leipzig in Saxony, he was totally victorious. Corrections? His highly trained troops forced back the imperial army, whose resistance ceased at dusk when thousands, including Tilly, fled the field. Battle of Breitenfeld (1642) The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some north-east of … [1], In this second clash between ideologies for the prized Saxon city of Leipzig, the Protestant allied forces, led by Torstensson, defeated an army of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Leopold and his deputy, Prince-General Piccolomini. The main Catholic field army was destroyed, and the Swedish Protestant host overran most of central Germany and Bohemia in the winter of 1631–32. On the second day, officers were beheaded and selected men hanged on the trees on the road from Rokycany to Litohlavy. This first Battle of Breitenfeld was the first major Catholic defeat of the Thirty Years’ War. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The field at Breitenfeld was a slightly hilly plain with a length of three kilometers, bordered by the forest from the south and the stream of Loberbach from the northeast. The Imperials had 26,000 men and 46 guns, the Swedes 20,000 men and 70 guns.[2]. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. Questions or concerns? This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. Count of Tilly, Johann Tserclaes (Count Tilly) outstanding general, principal commander of the Catholic League in Germany during the Thirty Years' War, 17th century. Battle of Breitenfeld (1631): Miller, Frederic P.: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. The Imperial army suffered 9,500 casualties, including 4,500 taken prisoner. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on 17 September (Gregorian calendar), or 7 September (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. (en) Die zweite Schlacht von Breitenfeld am 23. Omissions? The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. Historians are generally agreed that some kind of military revolution took place in the conduct of war during the seventeenth century and one name that stands out above all others in implementing it is Gustav Adolf II, king of Sweden, best known in the Latin form as Gustavus Adolphus. The rapid advance unsettled the imperial lines and the Swedish were able to reorder, creating a new left flank. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. 64 relations. Although these articles may currently differ in style from others on the site, they allow us to provide wider coverage of topics sought by our readers, through a diverse range of trusted voices. The battle, following a brief mop-up campaign ending with the Battle of Klingenthal, enabled Sweden to occupy Saxony. Battle of Breitenfeld 1631 $ 3.95. On September 17, 1631, a battle was fought at the village of Breitenfeld, near Leipzig. First Battle of Breitenfeld; Part of the Thirty Years' War: Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Breitenfeld, painting by J. Walter, 1632 The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately five miles north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. Gevechten in de Dertigjarige Oorlog De Slag bij Breitenfeld bij Leipzig was de eerste belangrijke protestantse overwinning in de Dertigjarige Oorlog. The winning general, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, showed exceptional skill as a commander. There were 9,000 untrained Saxons present, which contributed little to the fight. From noon to 2:00 PM there was an artillery exchange in which the Swedish guns outnumbered those of the Catholics by fifty-one to twenty-seven. Tactics did play a more prominent role in this battle but operational maneuver also affected the scale of the Swedish victory. Although Gustav died in battle…, >Breitenfeld in that same year, the Swedish army practically annihilated the imperial forces under the famous Bavarian general the Count von Tilly.…, In September 1631, at Breitenfeld, the Swedish-Saxon forces shattered Tilly’s army in a battle that was a landmark in the art of war and a turning point in the history of Germany. Course of Battle. On 15 September Gustavus Adolphus’s army of 23,000 joined 16,000 soldiers from the Electorate of Saxony. By his military genius, Gustavus saved Germany from Hapsburg domination. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Battle of Breitenfeld, (Sept. 17, 1631), the first major Protestant victory of the Thirty Years’ War, in which the army of the Roman Catholic Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic League, under Johan Isaclaes, Graf von Tilly, was destroyed by the Swedish-Saxon army under King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden. These articles have not yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected. Battle of Breitenfeld (1631): | | | First Battle of Breitenfeld | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the … Like the first battle, the second was a decisive victory for Swedish-led forces who had intervened in the Thirty Years' War on behalf of various Protestant princes of the generally small German states against the German Catholic League formed to resist Protestant expansion in Central Europe. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}51°20′25″N 12°22′29″E / 51.3403°N 12.3748°E / 51.3403; 12.3748, For a related battle earlier in the same war, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Breitenfeld_(1642)&oldid=922129011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2016, Articles needing additional references from June 2013, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 October 2019, at 03:56. This contribution has not yet been formally edited by Britannica. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. On 17 September the two armies met on a plain near the village of Breitenfeld. Ninety men (chosen by rolling dice) were executed at Rokycany, in western Bohemia, now in the Czech Republic, on December 14, 1642 by Jan Mydlář (junior), the son of Jan Mydlář, the famous executioner from Prague. Twenty-five miles (40 km) away in Leipzig, the imperial commander, Count Tilly, had an army of 35,000. The next summer they occupied Bavaria. Battle of Breitenfeld. The Swedish cavalry moved to outflank their enemy, who in response launched a charge, which was unable to make any headway after two hours of fighting. Gustavus Adolphus formed up in a similar fashion, but kept his lines separate from the raw Saxon army, which occupied a position to the left of the Swedes. The forces all had different structural organization. The forces all had different structural organization. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. This was followed by the massive flight of other cavalry units, which was the final turning point in the battle. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Mars Despite the murderous barrage that was raining down on the Imperialist army, Tilly did not intend to open to battle with cavalry attacks on both wings. [3] The victors captured 46 guns. BATTLE OF BREITENFELD. The Battle of Breitenfeld (Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately five miles north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. The Battle of Breitenfeld I (1631) was overall a meeting engagementwith both combatants agreeing to battle on the field. Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Six regiments, which had distinguished themselves in the battle, were assembled fully armed and surrounded Madlon's regiment, which was severely rebuked for its cowardice and misconduct and ordered to lay down its arms at the feet of General Piccolomini. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. Their mass grave is said to be on the Black Mound in Rokycany, which commemorates the decimation to this day. The battle marked the emergence of Sweden as a great power and the triumph of the new Swedish flexible linear tactics over the old massive infantry formations that had long dominated European warfare. Although Tilly had fewer men, he had more that were well trained. His defeat made Emperor Ferdinand III more willing to negotiate peace, and renounce the Preliminary[clarification needed] of Hamburg. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. Key differences between Imperial forces and the Swedes and their allies were in the training and structure of infantry, and in the S… In the meantime, more information about the article and the author can be found by clicking on the author’s name. https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Breitenfeld. In deze slag wist Gustaaf II Adolf van Zweden zijn naam te vestigen als grote militaire leider en verwierf de bijnaam 'Leeuw van het Noorden'. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Killed or wounded were 4,000 Swedes; among them, General Torsten Stålhandske, who led the Finnish Hakkapeliitta Cavalry, received a serious wound. Gustavus Adolphus was eager for a victory to convince other Protestant states to join him. The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig (23 October 1642), took place at Breitenfeld (some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig), Germany, during the Thirty Years' War.The battle was a decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 as an attempt by the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II to eliminate Protestantism and reimpose Catholicism in Bohemia. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar ), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. The two armies met at Breitenfeld, just north of Leipzig on September 17, 1631. On this day in 1631, the Battle of Breitenfeld was fought between Sweden-Saxony under Gustavus Adolphus and John George and the Imperialists under Count Tilly during the Thirty Years War. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Tilly’s army drew up with his infantry flanked by cavalry. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. On the first day of the execution, the regiment's cords[clarification needed] were broken by the executioner. The city of Dresden proclaimed September 17 henceforth a holiday. Both Armies were well supplied, and the terrain gave neither a distinct advantage. The Battle of Breitenfeld, a victory of movement and firepower over weight of formation, has been called the first battle of the modern age, and Gustavus Adolphus has been hailed as the father of modern warfare. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. The Battle of Breitenfeld (Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631.wikipedia Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Let us know. At 5:00 PM Gustavus Adolphus launched a counterattack through the center. Another version says that the soldiers were shot, and their bodies hanged on the trees. When they had obeyed that command, their ensigns (flags) were torn in pieces, and the general, having mentioned the causes of their degradation, and erased the regiment from the register of the imperial troops, pronounced the sentence that had been agreed upon in the council of war, condemning the colonel, captains and lieutenants to be beheaded, the ensigns (junior officers) to be hanged, the soldiers to be decimated and the survivors to be driven in disgrace out of the army.[4]. Battle of Breitenfeld (1642): | | | | | | Battle of Brei... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. The Battle of Breitenfeld (German: Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Swedish: Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately 8 km north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig (23 October 1642), took place at Breitenfeld (some 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north-east of Leipzig), Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. Map Code: Ax01485. The level of technology was roughly equivalent, with newer, lighter cannon and matchlocks giving the Swedes a slight advantage. His victory boosted Protestant hopes, which had been dashed by the loss at the Battle of Magdeburg. 7 September 1631. The Battle of Breitenfeld I (1631) was overall a meeting engagement with both combatants agreeing to battle on the field. Gustavus Adolphus was thence feted as the "Lion of the North," and was able to draw several Protestant states into a major alliance. The level of technology was roughly equivalent, with newer, lighter cannon and matchlocks giving the Swedes a slight advantage. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Losses: Catholic, 7,000 dead, 6,000 surrendered on the field (and 3,000 the next day at Leipzig) of 35,000; Swedish, 2,100 of 23,000; Saxon, 3,000 of 16,000. During the battle, Colonel Madlon's cavalry regiment was the first that fled without striking a blow. In the ensuing months Gustavus swept triumphantly through central Germany, systematically consolidating his base areas as he…. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Protestants had 42,000 men, the Imperialists, 35,000. On 17 September the two armies met at Breitenfeld, just outside Leipzig in Saxony, he more. 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